Alan Turing was British mathematician who used his talents to break German codes during World War II, which saved millions of lives, shortened the war, and arguably was the reason the Allies won the war. He is often considered the father of modern-computers and artificial intelligence. In 1952, he was arrested in Britain for having romantic relations with men. He committed suicide two years later, and the British government didn't apologize for the way he was treated until 2009. Queen Elizabeth II granted him a posthumous pardon in 2013.