King Henry VIII was the King of England between 1509-1547.
His brother Arthur was expected to succeed their father to the throne. However he died at the age of 15, thus all his duties fell upon Henry.
So young Henry ended up marrying his brother's widow.
Catherine of Aragon became Queen of England as a result, and she bore Henry children. However only a girl survived into adulthood.
King Henry VIII was not exactly a fiscally responsible King. He bankrupted his nation and imposed heavy taxes so he could pay for stuff he liked. Which happened to be palaces, guns, armor, and a whole bunch of stuff he never needed. He also ruled with an iron fist, often charging anyone he didn't like with treason.
Henry is most noted with breaking away from the Catholic Church, and starting the Church of England. This was because of his will to divorce his wife, but getting denied approval from the Pope.
He divorced Catherine because she did not produce him a male heir, and he married his mistress Anne Boleyn. She failed at giving Henry an heir, and she was later convicted without real evidence of treason, and was killed.
Henry then married Jane Seymour who produced the son Henry so desired. That son was Prince Edward who later became King for a short time. Jane was known as Henry's favorite wife, but that was short-lived after she died after giving childbirth.
Henry had 3 more marriages which were plagued with the same old drama. His last wife was Catherine Parr who outlived him.
Henry's later years were plagued with bad health and obesity. He died in 1547 at the age of 55.